Making Faces on Mount Rushmore
یادبود ملی کوه راشمُر (به انگلیسی: Mount Rushmore National Memorial) یک پارک و یادبود ملی در ایالت داکوتای جنوبی در ایالات متحده آمریکا است.
بر روی کوهی در این مکان، چهره چهار تن از مشهورترین رئیسان جمهور آمریکا بر روی سنگ کوه در مقیاس بزرگ کنده کاری شده است. از راست به چپ: آبراهام لینکلن، تئودور روزولت، توماس جفرسون، و جرج واشینگتن هستند.
این یادبود که در سال ۱۹۲۵ میلادی تأسیس گردید، بر روی زمینهای سرخپوستان قبیلهٔ لاکوتا قرار دارد.
Making Faces on Mount Rushmore
Making Faces on Mount Rushmore
"The magnitude of the monument should be due to the degree of importance of celebrated events for the whole of civilization. We're not trying to carve stone epic, portray a scene of moonlight or write a sonnet, we are not dealing with mysticism or a tragedy, but rather constructive and dramatic moments or turning points in the history of our amazing "
Gutson Borglum (Gutzon Borglum), the sculptor who created Mount Rushmore.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial, without a doubt, one of the most famous landmarks of the United States - a tribute to the great American presidents, designed to preserve the memory of the great stories of the country for many centuries.
Nestled in the mountains of the Black Hills (Black Hills), South Dakota, memorial attracts about three million people.
The idea of ??the creation of the monument was a local historian Doane Robinson, however, in his original plan, the rock had to be drawn other personalities that have influenced the formation and development of the country, for example, the Indian chief Red Cloud, the famous American pioneers.
Historian Doane Robinson is often called the "Father of Mount Rushmore." In 1923, in order to attract tourists to South Dakota, he first made a proposal to create a monumental sculpture of an Indian chief Red Cloud, American explorers Lewis and Clark, or other well-known personalities of the era of the conquest of the Wild West. Although Robinson was not the first American to express the idea of ??creating monumental sculptures. Back in 1849, the Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton proposed to carve a huge figure of Christopher Columbus in the Rocky Mountains.
Robinson shared his idea with the sculptor Borglum Hudson, known for creating images carved in stone. Hudson agreed to come to the Black Hills in 1924, explore the area, do the analysis for the possibility of such a project. Scenic Area Black Hills (Black Hills) in South Dakota is often called the "Island of the prairie," as many granite hills are surrounded by vast expanses of open steppe. Borglum especially liked facing the south-east side of Mount Rushmore, illuminated by the sun more than half of the day. It was the tallest mountain in the contiguous area with a solid granite rock.
Borglum agreed to take part in the project, provided the creation of something bigger. He wanted to create a monument that commemorates the American history. And the best option for this - creating sculptures of the great political figures of the country. The choice fell on the figure of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln. Robinson did not mind.
Implementation of the huge project - not an easy task. First, you must get permission to work on the mountainside. The bill authorizing the use of federal lands for the needs of the monument, approved easily. The bill in the legislature of the State of South Dakota has met on a number of obstacles along the way. Approved only on the third attempt, March 5, 1925 the Governor of Gunderson signed into law.
Then the project is faced with the problem of funding. Months passed, and potential sponsors in no hurry to part with their money. Environmentalists believe the project disfigure the mountainside. Others have questioned the possibility of a mere mortal to improve what Mother Nature created.
The successful implementation of the project contributed to the U.S. President Coolidge, who promised funding from the federal budget. The government has allocated initial funds in the scrip to $ 250,000 and established a National Commission of Mount Rushmore Memorial.
Borglum began work in 1927 and continued her 14 years until his death in 1941. Mount Rushmore transformed with dynamite, the cost of the work amounted to nearly $ 1 million - a huge sum of money in those days.
Why these four presidents on Mount Rushmore?
George Washington (1732-1799, the first president) led the struggle of the American colonies and gained independence from Great Britain. Becoming the founder of a new country, he laid the foundations of American democracy. In terms of importance, Washington is the most important figure on the mountain.
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826, 3rd President) - author of the Declaration of Independence. He acquired the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, joined a number of other states, increasing the territory of the state in half.
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865, 16th President) kept the unity of the state at the time of the greatest tests - the Civil War. He was of the firm conviction - to slavery should be done away with.
Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919, 26th president) played an important role in the project to build the Panama Canal. Known as the "destroyer of the trusts," he exerted tremendous efforts to restrict the activities of large corporate monopolies and ensure the rights of the working class.
Borglum had developed an effective and relatively inexpensive technology removing large amounts of excess rock with explosives. 90% of rock removed by dynamite charges (approximately 450,000 tons). Dynamite unused until yet remained from 7.5 to 15 cm of excess rock that is then removed by pneumatic tools.
Borglum created a mock-up of sculptures of four presidents in the ratio of 1 to 12. One inch (2.54 cm) on the model was equal to one foot (30.5 cm) on the rock. Workers replaced feet and inches quickly determined the amount necessary to remove the rock.
Drillers using pneumatic tools drilled a lot of holes next to each other - a technology known as "honeycomb". Closely-drilled holes to each other weakened granite, the removal of excess rock passed without considerable effort. The surface is then polished using the same kind of pneumatic tools with special cutting edges.
First worked on the figure of George Washington. Image of Thomas Jefferson began carving the right of Washington. After two years of work on the surface of the face Jefferson stood out deep cracks. His image had to break and start again on the left side of Washington.
The statue of George Washington was inaugurated July 4, 1934.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt opened the statue of Thomas Jefferson in 1936.
September 17, 1937, in honor of the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution, have opened a statue of Abraham Lincoln.
The figure of Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated in 1939. In the same year set up night lighting of the memorial.
Work on Mount Rushmore continued for two years. In March 1941, Gutzon Borglum died suddenly, and not being able to fulfill their end of the plan - to carve the image of presidents from head to waist. Borglum's original dream model can be seen in the sculptor's studio in the Memorial.
With the death of Borglum and the upcoming participation of the United States in World War II, the final work on Mount Rushmore came to an end. October 31, 1941 announced the completion of the monument. Despite the dangerous working conditions in the 14 years of construction is not lost not a single worker.
Mount Rushmore National Memorial has become an iconic symbol of American history. For 14 years, an impressive granite hillside transformed into the likeness of four figures of the great presidents of the United States. What seemed almost impossible a reality.
Mount Rushmore - enormous in their size, ambitions and achievements of the project. In its creation was attended by about 400 workers. During the interview, the workers asked, "What are you doing here? '. One of them said: "I have been working with pneumatic tools." Another said: "I earn $ 8 a day." A third said: "I help create the Memorial." From 1927 to 1941. working on Mount Rushmore is not just working with pneumatic tools or earning $ 8 a day - they built the Memorial to different generations of Americans were able to better understand the history of the United States. Carved figures on Mount Rushmore are tremendous achievement worthy of a synonym for "monumental". To date, Mount Rushmore is one of the most famous symbols of America.
Mount Rushmore is controversial among Native Americans for the following reasons.
In 1868, the United States formally recognized the Black Hills area holds Lakota, signing a peace treaty with them ("as long as the rivers flow and the grass grows and the leaves appear on the trees, the land would belong to the Indians). But in 1874 in the Black Hills discovered gold, and soon the government of the United States required the Indians to move to reservations. The Great Sioux War (1876-1877), which ended with the defeat of the Indians and their relocation to reservations. So the Native Americans lost their territory.
There is a perception that lies at the heart of the Memorial theme of racial superiority. On the hillside carved images of four presidents who rule was characterized by the most active taking away land from the Native Americans. Moreover, the author of the monument Borglum was an active member of the Ku Klux Klan - an organization whose members claimed the superiority of white people over other races.
Mount Rushmore - one of the monuments that can stand without exaggeration century - the destruction of the natural stone is only one inch in ten thousand years. Despite the longevity provided by nature itself, in 2010 there were three-dimensional scanning of the monument - this measure will help restore its original form in the event of an unexpected failure.
Mountain got its name in honor of the visit there often a New York lawyer Charles Rushmore.
Initially it was assumed that the image of Jefferson will be to the right of Washington, but it appeared that there stone unsuitable for these sculptures, and had to move to another place.
The size of the eye stone presidents - about three meters in diameter.
Borglum originally planned to create images of presidents in full growth.
With President Theodore Roosevelt, Borglum was personally acquainted.
In order to carve a 18-foot heads of four presidents, Gutsonu Borglum took more than 14 years and about 400 workers. To get to the top of the monument, workers had to climb 506 steps. Although the work was carried out in difficult conditions during construction was not lost a single human life.
Gutson Borglum started the project in 1927, when he was 60 years old. Despite the fact that the sculpture was created for such a long time, it cost only $ 1 million.
Carved faces are at an altitude of 1676 meters above sea level. If the head at this scale was attached body, the height of each piece would be about 142 meters. The height of each of the carved heads corresponds to a 6-storey building.
When measured from the crown to the chin, the height of each sculpture is not inferior height of the Great Sphinx in Egypt. The width of each eye is approximately 3 m by 30 cm, mouth - about 5 m 50 cm, and the length of the nose of each president about 6 meters.
Complete construction of the monument was not easy. This required a great experience and skill. To clear a large rock, needed dynamite. First, workers carved oval lumps, which served as the basis for the heads up. Then experts blew up the rock a few inches from the actual measurements. Further, to finally cut the contours of the head, they used tools such as pneumatic hammers, sledge hammers, wedges and nails. During this process, it was removed about 360,000 tons of rock.
• Objects to visit Mount Rushmore National Memorial are open year round, seven days a week, except December 25. The information center is open from 8 am to 22:00 from late May to early September until 17:00 from October to April. Opening hours can sometimes vary. The studio of the sculptor is only open during the warm period of the year from 9 am to 18:00. Lighting ceremony in the amphitheater begins at 21:00. Sculpture lit 1-2 hours a night for a year.
• Fees for the entrance to the Mount Rushmore National Memorial is not. Payment required only for a spot in the parking lot.
• June, July and August - the peak of the influx of visitors, the busiest days - July 3 and 4. The best time to visit in September and October or in April and May.
• In the Memorial there are places catering and gift shop. Food items in the winter is limited.
• Mount Rushmore faces in the south-east side, the best time for viewing and photographing the early morning.
The closest airport is in Rapid City (Rapid City), 36 km from Mount Rushmore National Memorial. From there on the first car on Highway 16A (Highway 16A), followed by Highway 244 (Highway 244). Or, on the motorway US16 (Route 16) in the direction of the city of Keystone (Keystone), and then on Highway 244 (Highway 244) to Mount Rushmore. Public transport City Rapid City Memorial does not serve.